### Working paper

## Painleve Field Theory

We consider the totally asymmetric exclusion process in discrete time with generalized updating rules. We introduce a control parameter into the interaction between particles. Two particular values of the parameter correspond to known parallel and sequential updates. In the whole range of its values the interaction varies from repulsive to attractive. In the latter case the particle flow demonstrates an apparent jamming tendency not typical for the known updates. We solve the master equation for *N* particles on the infinite lattice by the Bethe ansatz. The non-stationary solution for arbitrary initial conditions is obtained in a closed determinant form.

This journal publishes the mathematics section of Series I of the Vestnik (Herald) of St. Petersburg University, and is one of the oldest Russian mathematics journals in English translation. Articles cover the major areas of pure and applied mathematics.

Many famous mathematicians are associated with the Faculty of Mathematics and Mechanics at St. Petersburg University, including Chebyshev, Lyapunov, Alexandrov, Smirnov, Kantorovich, to name a few. Today, mathematics/mechanics faculty members continue the excellent tradition in mathematics associated with the University and the **Vestnik** is the prime outlet for their research results.

These volumes contain the proceedings of the conference held at Aarhus, Oxford and Madrid in September 2016 to mark the seventieth birthday of Nigel Hitchin, one of the world’s foremost geometers and Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford. The proceedings contain twenty-nine articles, including three by Fields medallists (Donaldson, Mori and Yau). The articles cover a wide range of topics in geometry and mathematical physics, including the following: Riemannian geometry, geometric analysis, special holonomy, integrable systems, dynamical systems, generalized complex structures, symplectic and Poisson geometry, low-dimensional topology, algebraic geometry, moduli spaces, Higgs bundles, geometric Langlands programme, mirror symmetry and string theory. These volumes will be of interest to researchers and graduate students both in geometry and mathematical physics.

We discuss the Poisson structures on Lie groups and propose an explicit construction of the integrable models on their appropriate Poisson submanifolds. The integrals of motion for the SL(N)-series are computed in cluster variables via the Lax map. This construction, when generalised to the co-extended loop groups, gives rise not only to alternative descriptions of relativistic Toda systems, but allows to formulate in general terms some new class of the integrable models. We discuss the subtleties of this Lax map related to the ambiguity in projection to the trivial co-extension and propose a way to write the spectral curve equation, which fixes this ambiguity, both for the Toda chains and their generalisations.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.